Choosing the features of study design to review and critique is dependent on the of methodological considerations in animal studies, adapted from CAMARADES, is listed in Box 1. You should start by referring back to your research questions, discuss your results, then set them into the context of the literature, and then into broader theory. You also need to consider how best to present your results: tables, figures, graphs, or text. Personal and Romantic Relationship Skills, Teaching, Coaching, Mentoring and Counselling, Understanding Your Preferences to Aid Learning, Decisions to Make Before Applying to University, Researching and Writing a Literature Review. Writing a Literature Review | Writing a Research Proposal A systematic review answers a defined research question by collecting and summarising all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria. Writing Your Dissertation or Thesis eBook. You should write your results section in the past tense: you are describing what you have done in the past. The research gap identified in the introduction indicates what the researchers wanted to look at; what did they claim, ultimately, when they completed their research? A systematic review is a piece of research – an experiment - in its own right that you do to establish whether a hypothesis is correct or not. If they are relevant, you should include them. The way the authors interpret their results may be quite different from the way you would interpret them or the way another researcher would interpret them. Often, the authors provide specific details about future possible studies that could or should be conducted in order to make more sense of their own study’s conclusions. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. The thesis is not a sweeping proclamation; rather, it is likely a very reasonable and conditional claim. This section is very important because it is finally moving towards an argument. I am afraid that readers will not be clearly understand all of the result I mention. They are a significant piece of work (the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination at York … This discussion should evaluate the quality of the results and their reliability, but not stray too far into discussion of how far your results support your hypothesis and/or answer your research questions, as that is for the discussion section. Another limitation of these priorities and indeed any priorities in a pandemic is their limited temporal nature. Discussion: The Discussion should summarize the main findings from the review and then move on to discuss the limitations of the study and the reliability of the results. Most people are likely to write this section best by preparing an outline, setting out the broad thrust of the argument, and how your results support it. Writing the results and discussion as separate sections allows you to focus first on what results you obtained and set out clearly what happened in your experiments and/or investigations without worrying about their implications. You'll get our 5 free 'One Minute Life Skills' and our weekly newsletter. This can focus your mind on what the results actually show and help you to sort them in your head. Statistical tests should include details of p values or confidence intervals and limits. This section also usually discusses the limitations of the study and speculates on what the results say about the problem(s) identified in the research question(s). The results and discussion, including conclusion and recommendations, are probably the most substantial sections of your dissertation. The interpretation should include: Statement of principal findings; An analysis of those findings (for example, on what strength of the evidence, are the review's conclusions being made?) The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Explanation of results: Comment on whether or not the results were expected for each set of findings; go into greater depth to explain findings that were unexpected or especially profound. Since the researchers interpret their results according to theoretical underpinnings in this section, there is more room for difference of opinion. While you don’t need to include all your primary evidence in this section, you should as a matter of good practice make it available in an appendix, to which you should refer at the relevant point. Make sure that you including information about the size and direction of any changes, including percentage change if appropriate. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease and cancer have a greater risk of death from COVID-19. A meta-analysis is the use of statistical methods to summarise the results of these studies. The Discussion section follows the Results and precedes the Conclusions and Recommendations section. Forest plots are the standard way to illustrate results of individual studies and meta-analyses. This is likely to be one of the longest sections of your dissertation, and it’s a good idea to break it down into chunks with sub-headings to help your reader to navigate through the detail. See our pages: Analysing Qualitative Data and Simple Statistical Analysis for more information on analysing your results. This video presentation focuses on writing the results, Discussion and Conclusion chapters of a Masters or PhD thesis. Why or why not? BACKGROUND: The term middle ear myoclonus (mem) has been invoked to explain symptoms of tinnitus presumably caused by the … Those explanations are often reached by comparing and contrasting the results to prior studies’ findings, so citations to the studies discussed in the Literature Review generally reappear here. The Results (or Findings) section follows the Methods and precedes the Discussion section. This systematic review identifies evidence across 2 decades incorporating: 1) multiple research methods (eg, qualitative and quantitative), 2) a range of health IT systems and software applications, 3) investigations into clinical work practices, and 4) … They answer the question, “Why did we get the results we did?” This section provides logical explanations for the results from the study. Your explanations may include issues such as a non-representative sample for convenience purposes, a response rate skewed towards those with a particular experience, or your own involvement as a participant for sociological research. This will help you to see whether your results are over-focused in one area, which is why writing up your research as you go along can be a helpful process. doi: 10.17226/13059. Frequently, a Meta-analysis is also included into the Systematic Review results. 8 Systematic review Discussion and Results The tables below display the number of articles returned by several search engines and databases, while both the Boolean search string and free text query are run. This section has four purposes, it should: The discussion section therefore needs to review your findings in the context of the literature and the existing knowledge about the subject. The text and figures should be complementary, not repeat the same information. Tables and figures help to present included studies and their findings in a systematic and clear format. The results are frequently summarized using a diagram called a Forest Plot. Once completed, you can begin to relax slightly: you are on to the last stages of writing! It doesn’t matter whether they are supportive or not, it’s about relevance. We'll never share your email address and you can unsubscribe at any time. Systematic and deliberate discussion between all relevant authorities across the EU in any given policy field is needed on the results that are achieved and on the experience of Member States. Synthesis of results: Present results of each meta-analysis done, including confidence intervals & measures of consistency. Institute of Medicine. You could choose chronological, which should follow the methods, or in order from most to least important in the answering of your research questions, or by research question and/or hypothesis. This is where the authors provide the data collected during their study. Therefore the first step is to prepare a protocol describing the aims and objectives of the experiment and the methods. Since many of the discussions before the meeting focused on the implicit trade-offs between the benefits and costs of systematic review replication, participants agreed that the value of information (VOI) framework17 18 could be helpful in developing criteria for when to replicate and when not to replicate prior systematic reviews. Check back to make sure that you have included all the relevant methods. Those explanations are often reached by comparing and contrasting the results to prior studies’ findings, so citations to the studies discussed in the Literature Review generally reappear here. Information sources and search strategy. A full understanding of the limitations of your research is part of a good discussion section. But be sure to run them by all committee members and your program director before publishing or creating the poster, to make sure you haven�t overlooked anything. However, for an undergraduate or master's thesis, you will probably find that you need to include most of your work. If your results are controversial and/or unexpected, you should set them fully in context and explain why you think that you obtained them. Additional analysis: Give results of additional analyses, if done (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression). If you don’t see a separate Discussion section, don’t worry. It does not have to include everything you did, particularly for a doctorate dissertation. Did they get the results they expected? Results and discussions can either be combined into one section or organized as separate sections depending on the requirements of the journal to which you are submitting your research paper. 2011. Result of Free Text Query In the report for the December 2010 survey of U.S. portfolio holdings of foreign securities, tables A2-5 list holdings by country from the surveys since 2004. If you are unsure whether to include certain results, go back to your research questions and decide whether the results are relevant to them. You will, almost inevitably, find that you need to include some slight discussion of your results during this section. Suggested Citation:"6 Improving the Quality of Systematic Reviews: Discussion, Conclusions, and Recommendations." Middle ear myoclonus: two informative cases and a systematic discussion of myogenic tinnitus. A systematic review draws together the results of several primary research studies. Just a small amount of writing to go from this point. When writing a dissertation or thesis, the results and discussion sections can be both the most interesting as well as the most challenging sections to write. Finding What Works in Health Care: Standards for Systematic Reviews. … I have a problem when I write the results part. Number all tables and figures with descriptive titles. You may find techniques like mind mapping are helpful in making a first outline; check out our page: Creative Thinking for some ideas about how to think through your ideas. Conclude by summarising the implications of your findings in brief, and explain why they are important for researchers and in practice, and provide some suggestions for further work. Following a discussion of results of different Gold label assessments the group also discussed the different opportunities to extend the period of validity of a Gold label as well as potential new activities Gold cluster managers can initiate together with the ESCA secretariat in Berlin. Make sure that each table and figure has a number and a title. Writing your Methodology, See also: Number tables and figures in separate lists, but consecutively by the order in which you mention them in the text. Some universities require a separate section on recommendations for policy and practice and/or for future research, while others allow you to include this in your discussion, so check the guidelines carefully. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the incidence, case-fatality rate (CFR), isolate antimicrobial resistance patterns, and serotype and sequence type distributions for invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease in infants <1–89 days of age in China. Be happy! They answer the question, “Why did we get the results we did?” This section provides logical explanations for the results from the study. You also need to demonstrate that you understand the limitations of your research and the implications of your findings for policy and practice. You do not need to be apologetic about these, because you made a choice about them, which you should have justified in the methodology section. The Interpretation (or Discussion) section of the systematic review helps readers interpret the main findings of the review, brought together in the synthesis step. Subscribe to our FREE newsletter and start improving your life in just 5 minutes a day. Dissertation: Conclusion and Extras Discussion. Systematic reviews, just like other research articles, can be of varying quality. If you have more than about two or three, it’s often helpful to provide lists of tables and figures alongside the table of contents at the start of your dissertation. A Systematic Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Participants’ Opinions on Peer Assessment in Surveys and Course Forum Discussions of MOOCs Thomas Staubitz, Christoph Meinel Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany {thomas.staubitz, christoph.meinel}@hpi.de Abstract—Peer assessment has become a regular feature of many MOOC1 platforms and also has … This section should be written in the present tense. Every result included MUST have a method set out in the methods section. What did it show them—and what are they showing us—about the topic? It is here that the authors indicate the significance of their results. We have tried to account for this in the discussion of the results here. Part of the Skills You Need Guide for Students. DISCUSSION. Earlier surveys include results from the 1994, 1997, 2001, and 2003 surveys. In the ‘patient theme’, the most obvious benefits were an increase in medication knowledge, a reduction of medication errors and higher medication adherence. You may also wish to make some recommendations for practice. As before, this may be a separate section, or included in your discussion. The Discussion section follows the Results and precedes the Conclusions and Recommendations section. Make sure that everything you discuss is covered in the results section. We searched for articles published before 30 September 2019, regardless of language or data, in four electronic databases: PubMed, … Once you have your outline in front of you, you can start to map out how your results fit into the outline. This sec… PLEASE NOTE: We are currently in the process of updating this chapter and we appreciate your patience whilst this is being completed. Strengths and limitations . I am conducting a systematic review of molecular mechanisms. In this systematic review we found an association between financial conflicts of interest and favourable recommendations of drugs and devices in clinical guidelines, advisory committee reports, opinion pieces, and narrative reviews. Results From the 846 retrieved articles, 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, mostly from Germany (18 studies) and the USA (5 studies). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Any that you don’t feel the need to refer to can safely be moved to an appendix, or even removed. You should cover any literature supporting your interpretation of significance. When you first skim an article, it may be useful to go straight to the Conclusion and see if you can figure out what the thesis is since it is usually in this final section. However, do not mistake this directive for the thesis; it’s a convention. That data can sometimes be difficult to understand because it is often quite technical. The WHO Roadmap priorities that we have mapped here, although named mid- to long-term priorities, were identified by world experts in February 2020, at a time when the majority of cases of COVID-19 were … Risk of bias across studies: Present results of any assessment of risk of bias across studies. However, searching databases is laborious and time-consuming, as syntax of search strategies are database specific. The use of material found at skillsyouneed.com is free provided that copyright is acknowledged and a reference or link is included to the page/s where the information was found. Nearly every research article ends by inviting other scholars to continue the work by saying that more research needs to be done on the matter. At this stage, you may want to revisit your literature review, unless you submitted it as a separate submission earlier, and revise it to draw out those studies which have proven more relevant. Having decided what to include, next decide what order to use. Principal findings. Continue to: Discussion. A Meta-analysis is a statistical comparing and combining of the results of each study included in the review. You should refer to every table or figure in the text. A systematic review seeks to provide Note: Some articles collapse the Discussion and Conclusion sections together under a single heading (usually “Conclusion”). For each theme or area, you should discuss how the results help to answer your research question, and whether the results are consistent with your expectations and the literature. The methods and results of this section are presented in Supplementary material online, Secondary outcomes. These can be generated using Review Manager software, and a selection of them can be chosen for inclusion in the body of a Cochrane review. The same is true for publication bias, where positive results get published more often than other results (12,13). If appropriate, note any unusual or unanticipated patterns or trends that emerged from your results and explain their meaning in … Such selective outcome reporting bias has been demonstrated in studies of RCTs (10,11). undertaken, and if there is a systematic difference between the reported and unreported outcomes, it may lead to bias. It is here that the authors indicate the significance of their results. The purpose of a Results section is to present the key results of your research. Material from skillsyouneed.com may not be sold, or published for profit in any form without express written permission from skillsyouneed.com. However, you do need to evaluate your own results against others’ findings, especially if they are different. Within systematic reviews, when searching for relevant references, it is advisable to use multiple databases. For information on how to reference correctly please see our page on referencing. Ellenstein A(1), Yusuf N, Hallett M. Author information: (1)Department of Neurology, George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States of America. Writing a Dissertation: The Introduction Use subsections and subheadings to improve readability and clarity. The Discussion section needs to follow from your results and relate back to your literature review. You may choose to write these sections separately, or combine them into a single chapter, depending on your university’s guidelines and your own preferences. We searched the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for … Since systematic reviews are generally associated with health related fields, their main objective is to ensure the results of the review provide accurate evidence that answers relevant questions. Academic Referencing, Subscribe to our Newsletter | Contact Us | About Us. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the review should be discussed, and implications for current practice suggested. And make sure they are congruent with your research purpose, objectives, hypothesis, and methods. You�re getting there. Check your university’s requirements carefully before combining the results and discussions sections as some specify that they must be kept separate. Writing the results and discussion as separate sections allows you to focus first on what results you obtained and set out clearly what happened in your experiments and/or investigations without worrying about their implications. If you are looking for information about literature reviews, please … They are used when there is an important clinical question, but many clinical studies, perhaps with conflicting results. Do not let this intimidate you; you will discover the significance of the results next. This means that the Try to use a variety of different methods of presentation, and consider your reader: 20 pages of dense tables are hard to understand, as are five pages of graphs, but a single table and well-chosen graph that illustrate your overall findings will make things much clearer. Forest Plots basically illustrate the effects of a treatment. Table. Thirteen studies reported a statistically significant result. A systematic review is a review of the literature that addresses a clearly formulated question and uses systematic and explicit methods to: identify publications, select publications relevant to the question critically appraise the publications analyse the data reported in the relevant publications report the combined results from relevant publications. The results and discussion are (relatively) cut and dried. Summarise your results in the text, drawing on the figures and tables to illustrate your points. The Results section should set out your key experimental results, including any statistical analysis and whether or not the results of these are significant. Conversely, every method should also have some results given so, if you choose to exclude certain experiments from the results, make sure that you remove mention of the method as well. 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